Percutaneous Treatment of Slow-Flow Vascular Malformations

Patricia E. Burrows

in Mulliken and Young's Vascular Anomalies

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print August 2013 | ISBN: 9780195145052
Published online November 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199357147 | DOI:
Percutaneous Treatment of Slow-Flow Vascular Malformations

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  • Surgery
  • Histopathology
  • Surgical Skills


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Chapter 19 provides a comprehensive review of endovascular techniques used to treat venous, lymphatic and combined slow-flow vascular malformations. Sclerotherapy, venous embolization and endovenous laser are presented in the context of various types of angioarchitecture, including simple and complex lesions. The chapter is both informative and instructive, providing many helpful tips for the Interventional physician. Characteristics of the various sclerosants, including their mechanisms of action, adverse effects and recommended dose limits are given. Opacifying agents and image guidance with road-mapping, fluoroscopy and ultrasonography are illustrated. Safety and effectiveness are emphasized throughout. Techniques recommended to minimize the risks of systemic and local adverse effects are described in detail, and include venous outflow occlusion with tissue adhesive, endovenous laser and multi-agent sclerotherapy. The chapter also discusses pre-and post-procedural evaluation of patients as well as management of complications. The 39 figures are extensive, intended to demonstrate a variety of techniques, as well as results and long-term follow-up. Several examples are shown to illustrate how patients with a diffuse venous malformation were managed with sclerotherapy beginning in early childhood.

Chapter.  23195 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Surgery ; Histopathology ; Surgical Skills

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