Estimating prognosis

Roy S. Gardner, Theresa A. McDonagh and Niki L. Walker

in Heart Failure

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print August 2014 | ISBN: 9780199674152
Published online August 2014 | e-ISBN: 9780191781803 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Cardiology

Estimating prognosis

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  • Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Clinical Skills


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With advances in medical therapy, the prognosis of CHF has improved dramatically. However, some patients remain symptomatic and at high risk of death despite maximal medical therapy, and identifying these individuals, who would potentially benefit from a range of novel device therapies or cardiac transplantation, can be challenging. Over 300 parameters have been shown to be predictive of a poor outcome in patients with CHF, the most consistent of which will be illustrated in this chapter. To date, the most effective single marker appears to be the B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP/NT-proBNP).

Chapter.  1843 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine ; Clinical Skills

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