Chapter

Focal Disorders of the Cerebral Hemispheres and Brainstem

Jeffrey W. Britton, Brian D. Moseley and Eduardo E. Benarroch

in Autonomic Neurology

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print May 2014 | ISBN: 9780199920198
Published online May 2014 | e-ISBN: 9780199389087 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199920198.003.0018

Series: Contemporary Neurology Series

Focal Disorders of the Cerebral Hemispheres and Brainstem

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Several forebrain structures, including the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala have a major role in high-level control of autonomic. Stroke involving the insula, can manifest with cardiac arrhythmias or myocardial injury that may be potential cause of sudden death and carry poor long-term prognosis. Contralateral hemihyperhidrosis may be a manifestation of large hemispheric strokes with involvement of the opercular and insular cortex and may be an indicator of poor prognosis.The most common autonomic manifestation of frontal or temporal limbic seizures is cardiac arrhythmia, particularly ictal tachycardia; they may also. produce ictal bradycardia and asystole. Hypothalamic involvement typically manifests with disturbances of circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, and thermoregulation. Brainstem lesions, particularly those affecting the medulla, manifests with several autonomic disturbances including baroreflex failure, neurogenic hypertension, respiratory dysrhythmias, and gastrointestinal dysmotility.

Chapter.  6554 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

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