Journal Article

A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

N. Higginbottom, C. Knigge,  K. S. Long, S. A. Sim and J. H. Matthews

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 436, issue 2, pages 1390-1407
Published in print December 2013 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online September 2013 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt1658

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Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the ‘quasar’ mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, Ṁwind. In the context of our adopted geometry, Ṁwind ∼ Ṁacc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

Keywords: radiative transfer; methods: numerical; galaxies: active; quasars: absorption lines; quasars: general

Journal Article.  12683 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics