A neurological disorder induced by repeated blows to the head, which are thought to cause microhaemorrhages of the brain stem and permanent neuronal damage. Typically, the victim is unsteady when standing; fatuous, euphoric, and voluble when speaking; and even aggressive. Memory and intellect may become impaired and, in advanced cases, encephalopathy causes chronic tremors, rigidity, and shaky movements (ataxia). Several studies have linked boxing (particularly professional boxing) with chronic brain dysfunction. Traditionally, the medical profession has based its opposition to boxing on this link. See also second impact syndrome.
Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.