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A predominantly Anglican movement stemming from the mid‐18th cent., originally with links to Whitefield and methodism, its characteristics were Calvinistic with a literalist interpretation of the Bible, sabbatarianism, conversion‐preaching, reform of the heart, human sinfulness, and personal salvation. The second generation was wealthy and close to political power; William Wilberforce, his cousin Henry Thornton, John Venn, vicar of Clapham, and Charles Simeon formed the Clapham sect, whose aims were the reformation of manners and the abolition of slavery (see anti‐slavery). Hannah More, a great propagandist with her Thoughts on the Manners of the Great (1787), and Wilberforce's Proclamation Society called not only for a moral reformation, but respect for government, orderly society, and hard work. World‐wide mission was another aim, for which the Church Missionary Society (1799) and the British and Foreign Bible Society (1804) were founded.

Subjects: Regional and National History — Christianity.

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