ecclesiastical reformer and statesman. A monk of Moyenmoutier, he came to Rome with Leo IX in 1049; by Feb. 1051 he was Cardinal-Bishop of Silva Candida. He was deeply involved in the negotiations with Michael Cerularius, Patr. of Constantinople. He wrote a treatise against simony in reply to Peter Damian; it contains the first attack on the practice of lay investiture. See also Great Schism (1).
Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Christianity.