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n. the production of immunity by artificial means. Passive immunity, which is temporary, may be conferred by the injection of an antiserum, but the production of active immunity calls for the use of treated antigens, to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies: this is the procedure of vaccination (also called inoculation). The material used for immunization (the vaccine) may consist of live bacteria or viruses so treated that they are harmless while remaining antigenic or completely dead organisms or their products (e.g. toxins) chemically or physically altered to produce the same effect.

Childhood immunization schedule.



2 months

DTaP/IPV/Hib pneumococcal vaccine

3 months

DTaP/IPV/Hib meningitis C vaccine (MenC)

4 months

DTaP/IPV/Hib MenC pneumococcal vaccine

12 months


13 months

MMR pneumococcal vaccine

3 years 4 months–5 years


Girls aged 12 to 13 years


13–18 years


Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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