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An ancient city of Egypt, whose ruins are situated on the Nile about 15 km (10 miles) south of Cairo. It is thought to have been founded as the capital of the Old Kingdom of Egypt in c.3100 bc by King Menes, the ruler of the Egyptian dynasty, who united the former kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. Associated with the god Ptah, it remained one of Egypt's principal cities even after Thebes was made capital of the New Kingdom in c.1570 bc. It is the site of the pyramids of Saqqara and Giza and the great sphinx.

Subjects: Archaeology.

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