Pope from 1605. When the Senate of Venice refused to repeal the laws of 1604–5 restricting the erection of religious buildings and the donation or sale of secular property to the Church, the Pope excommunicated the Senate and put the city under an interdict. He condemned the Oath of Allegiance required by James V in England. After futile attempts to re-establish the RC Church in Russia, he saw the beginning of the Thirty Years War in Germany. He was, however, a skilful canonist and he fostered the work of Congregations devoted to education and nursing as well as the missions, notably those in Africa and in Canada.