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1. Production based on relatively small units providing specialized goods or services for segmented markets; closely associated with the decline of the old manufacturing base from the 1960s onwards and the proliferation of new information technologies. Companies have downsized, often outsourcing parts of the work.

2. A decentralized management style focusing on coordination and facilitation of tasks rather than on control, and emphasizing flexibility.

3. The rise of consumerism and lifestyle identities accompanying the decline of production and class identities.

4. As applied to cinema, the downsizing of the major studios, the increase of outsourcing and the rise of independent producers and distributors following the demise of the studio system.

Subjects: Media Studies — Human Resource Management.

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