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In the mass media, formal reports of events considered likely to be significant to the target audience which are normally broadcast or published soon after information about them becomes available. As a genre in any medium, news is generally expected to be referential and informational communication reported accurately and without bias. Nevertheless, certain sectors of news journalism are regularly accused of bias (for instance, right-wing bias in certain newspapers or on Fox News), and national news outlets invariably adopt a nationalistic stance when the nation is involved in international conflict. Selective representation is unavoidable, and based on framing (see news frames). Like any form of representation, news ‘manufactures’ particular versions of reality rather than being a ‘window on the world’. Some sociological research presents news as the product of newsroom routines and as filtered through gatekeepers. From the journalistic perspective, the selection of items and the prominence and time or space devoted to them is related to inherent newsworthiness; however, selection is determined by news values. Some argue that the media are secondary definers, reproducing in news coverage the ideological framings of primary definers or dominant groups through their reliance on authoritative sources (see primary and secondary definers). Powerful interest groups do seek to influence the agenda when their interests are at stake (see also agenda setting; Glasgow media group; manufacture of consent). However, audiences are also selective: it was primarily in relation to television news that Stuart Hall developed the concepts of hegemonic, negotiated, and oppositional readings. Although news has always involved turning events into stories, critics note that commercial pressures lead to an increasing tendency for news to adopt fiction values, including the newsreader as celebrity (see also story model; tabloidization). More subtly, the genre has been seen as stereotypically masculine (see also informational communication).

http://www.dmoz.org/News/By_Region/ News media by country

Subjects: Media Studies.

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